Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a potentially transformational and mitigating technology for the analysis and information extraction from satellite imagery. Classification, forecasting, or pattern discovery in Earth Observation data can all be achieved efficiently with machine learning algorithms. The application of AI to Earth Observation data can help harmonize international reporting on natural resources, urbanization and disaster risks. It can be combined with other geo-referenced socio-demographic, economic and public administration data to make indicators and analysis more relevant and targeted for decision making. In this talk, Christina will discuss the critical aspects of applying AI to Earth Observation in support to EU and international policies with examples of challenges and achievements in developing an inclusive approach for using big Earth data and AI and for responding to high-level political priorities related to Sustainable Development Goals and the New Urban Agenda.